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Term Definition
Title VII

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employment discrimination of employees based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.


A civil, not criminal, wrong. A negligent or intentional injury against a person or property, with the exception of breach of contract.


A union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions.

Unruh Civil Rights Act

The Unruh Civil Rights Act (UNRUH) prohibits unlawful discrimination based on sex, race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin or disability by any business establishment, or discrimination based on the perception of any of the foregoing basis.


The geographic area in which a court has jurisdiction. A change of venue is a change or transfer of a case from one court to another.

Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974

Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 (VEVRAA) provides that if an individual leaves a nontemporary job to enter the military, is honorably discharged and then applies for reemployment with his/her former employer within ninety days after discharge from training or service, the individual must ordinarily be reinstated to his or her former position or a position of like seniority, status and pay. Once reemployed, the veteran must not be discharged without cause within one year.

Voir dire

Jury selection process of questioning prospective jurors, to ascertain their qualifications and determine any basis for challenge.


A whistleblower (whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who tells the public or someone in authority about alleged dishonest or illegal activities (misconduct) occurring in a government department or private company or organization. The alleged misconduct may be classified as a violation of a law, rule, regulation and/or a direct threat to public interest, such as fraud, health/safety violations, and corruption.


A person called upon by either side in a lawsuit to give testimony before the court or jury.

Workers' Compensation

Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue his or her employer for the tort of negligence.

Workers' Compensation Appeals Board

The Workers’ Compensation Appeals Board (WCAB) exercises all judicial powers vested by the Labor Code in a reasonable and sound manner and provides guidance and leadership to the workers' compensation community through case opinions and regulations.

The Workers' Compensation Appeals Board, a seven-member, judicial body appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate, exercises all judicial powers vested in it by the Labor Code. Its major functions include review of petitions for reconsideration of decisions by workers' compensation administrative law judges of the Division of Workers' Compensation and regulation of the adjudication process by adopting rules of practice and procedure.

Wrongful Termination

Wrongful dismissal, also called wrongful termination or wrongful discharge describes a situation in which an employee's contract of employment has been terminated by the employer in circumstances where the termination breaches one or more terms of the contract of employment, or a statute provision in employment law. It follows that the scope for wrongful dismissal varies according to the terms of the employment contract, and varies by jurisdiction. The absence of a formal contract of employment does not preclude wrongful dismissal in California. Terms of such a contract may include obligations and rights outlined in an employee handbook. Being terminated for any of the items listed below may constitute wrongful termination:

  1. Discrimination: The employer cannot terminate employment because the employee is a certain race, nationality, religion, sex, age, or in some jurisdictions, sexual orientation.
  2. Retaliation: An employer cannot fire an employee because the employee filed a claim of discrimination or is participating in an investigation for discrimination. In the United States, this "retaliation" is forbidden under civil rights law.
  3. Employee's refusal to commit an illegal act: An employer is not permitted to fire an employee because the employee refuses to commit an act that is illegal.
  4. Employer is not following own termination procedures: Often, the employee handbook or company policy outlines a procedure that must be followed before an employee is terminated. If the employer fires an employee without following this procedure, the employee may have a claim for wrongful termination.
  5. Reporting harassment
  6. Serving in the armed forces reserves
  7. Requesting overtime pay or additional benefits